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Although the large scale study of medieval graffiti inscriptions only began relatively recently there have been a number of articles published that deal with the subject. However, there has only ever been one full length work on the subject (although others are in preparation) which was now published over 40 years ago. English Medieval Graffiti, by Violet Pritchard, is still considered to be the standard text on the subject. A bibliography is included below for those who might want to take a more in-depth look at the subject. The bibliography makes no claim to be exhaustive and includes only UK based articles.

Full Length Works

Bell, R. & Rodwell, K., Acton Court: the evolution of a Tudor Courtiers House, English Heritage, 2004

Fleming, J., Graffiti and the Writing Arts of Early Modern England, Reaktion Books, 2001

Hine, R.,  Relics of an Un-Common Attorney, London: Dent, 1951 (inc. a whole chapter on church graffiti)

Oliver, J. & Neal, T., (eds) Wild Signs: Graffiti in Archaeology and History, BAR International Series 2074, 2010

Pacey, A., Medieval Architectural Drawing, Tempus, 2007

Pritchard, V., English Medieval Graffiti, CUP, 1967

Rodwell, W., The Archaeology of Churches, Amberley Publishing, new edition 2012 (several pages dedicated to graffiti)


Atkinson, T. D., On some consecration crosses in East Anglian churches, Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 11 (1906), pp. 255 – 262

Bailey, J., Medieval Widow Sketch found at Dartford, Holy Trinity, Church Archaeology 1, 1997

Baker, K., Gargoyles and Graffiti: chimeres, creatures and curiosities, Thaxted Church Series, Thaxted PCC, 2006

Barker, P. & Harrison, S., ‘Byland Abbey, North Yorkshire; the west front and rose window reconstructed’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association, CXL, 1987,

Boulter, S., Graffiti on the tower roof of St Michael, Cookley, Church Archaeology 4, 2000

Brady, K. & Corlett, C., Holy Ships: Ships on Plaster at Medieval Ecclesiastical Sites in Ireland, Archaeology Ireland, Vol. 18, No. 2 (Summer, 2004), pp. 28 - 31

Champion, M., Medieval Graffiti Inscriptions found in All Saints Church, Litcham, Norfolk Archaeology XLVI, 2011, pp.199-208

Champion, M., Medieval Window Sketch found at All Saints, Weston Longville, Norfolk Archaeology XLVI, 2012, pp.383–6

Champion, M., Tracery Designs at Binham Priory, English Heritage Historical Review, Vol. 6, 2011, pp.6-21

Champion, M., The medium is the message: votive devotional imagery and gift giving amongst the commonality in the late medieval parish, Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art & Architecture, 2012

Champion, M., Reading the Writing on the Wall: The Norfolk Medieval Graffiti Survey, Current Archaeology 22 (no.256), 2011

Champion, M., Walls have ears, noses, ships: the Norfolk Medieval Graffiti Survey, Cornerstone: the journal of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, Vol. 32, no.2, 2011

Champion, M., Grand Designs Revealed: the Binham Priory Graffiti Inscriptions, Cornerstone: the journal of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, Vol. 32, no.1, 2012

Champion, M., Ecclesiastical Etchings; the graffiti of Norwich Cathedral, Current Archaeology (no. 277), April 2013

Champion, M., The Graffiti Inscriptions of St Mary’s Church, Troston, Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, (forthcoming 2014)

Champion, M., Late Medieval Painted Decoration at St Edmunds Church, Acle, Norfolk Archaeology, (forthcoming 2014)

Champion, M., Blackfriars Barn Undercroft, Winchelsea, East Sussex: Graffiti Survey Record, Unpublished National Trust report, 2012

Champion, M., St Benet’s Abbey, Norfolk: Graffiti Survey Record, Unpublished Norfolk Archaeological Trust report, 2012

Champion, M. & Cohen, N., ‘Victory Graffiti in the Undercroft?’, National Trust: Arts, Buildings, Collections Bulletin, February 2013

Champion, M., Knole House: Graffiti Survey and Interpretation, Unpublished National Trust Report, 2013

Champion, M., ‘Medieval Graffiti Artists were ‘ere’: Norwich Cathedral Graffiti’, Cornerstone: the journal of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, Vol. 33, no.1, 2013

Coulton, G. G., Medieval Graffiti, Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Vol. XIX, 1915

Crook, J., ‘New light on the history of St Mary’s Church, Old Basing, Hampshire: an incised design for a post-medieval window’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association, CLIV, 2001

Easton, T., Ritual Marks on Historic Timber, The Mortice and Tenon 7, (Spring) 1998

Easton, T., Ritual Marks on Historic Timber, Weald and Downland Museum, Spring 1999

Easton, T., ‘Scribed and Painted Symbols’ in The Encyclopaedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Cambridge University Press (1998)

Easton, T., The use of conjoined Vs to protect a dwelling, Proc. Univ. Bristol Spelaeological Soc. 23, 2004

Emden, A. B., Graffiti of medieval ships from the Church of St Margaret at Cliffe, Kent, The Mariners Mirror: Journal of the Society for Nautical Research 8, 1922

Fletcher, T., Loader, N. J. & Robertson, I., A hidden medieval door and graffiti at the church of SS Mary and Andrew, Whittlesford, Cambridgeshire, Church Archaeology 12, 2008

Gardiner, M., Graffiti and their use in Late Medieval England, Ruralia, Vol. 6, Turnhout Brepols (2007), pp. 265 – 276

Gordon, A., The Act of Libel: Conscripting Civic Space in Early Modern England, Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 32:2, Spring 2002.

Graves, P. & Rollason, L., The Medieval Prior’s Chapel at Durham: its development and use, Monstic Research Bulletin 16, 2010

Gurney, D., World War Two Tree Graffiti at Honingham, Norfolk Archaeology XLVI, 2012, pp.231-232

Hine, R., “Church graffiti”, The Ely Diocesan Gazette, vol. 1, no. 12, December 1916,pp. 156-160.

Hine,R., “Church graffiti”, Lincolnshire Notes and Queries, vol. 14, no. 113, January 1917, pp. 133-144.

Hine, R., “Graffiti in Letchworth church”, Letchworth Newspaper, 4 November, 1921.

Hiscott, R., Graffiti: Scratching below the Surface, The friends of Beverely Minster 75th Annual Report, 2011, pp.25-27

Hooper, B., A possible 13th century depiction of St George in Eastwood church, Essex, Church Archaeology 7,8,9, 2005

Jones-Baker, D., `Graffito of medieval music in the Tresaunt, Windsor Castle' Antiquaries Journal 64, 1984

Jones-Baker, D., Graffito of a Danish or Viking ship, church of St Mary, Stow-in-Lindsey, Lincolnshire, Antiquaries Journal 66, 1986

Jones-Baker, D., The graffiti of England’s medieval churches and cathedrals, Churchscape 6, 1987

Jones-Baker, D., Medieval and Tudor Music and Musicians in Hertfordshire: the graffiti evidence in Hertfordshire in History, University of Herts, 2004

Jones-Baker, D., Makers Marks engraved in graffito on English Medieval and Post-Medieval Tombs and other Funeral Monuments, The Antiquaries Journal 76, 1996

Jones-Baker, D., English Medieval Graffiti, The Local Historian 23, (Feb) 1993,

Kahanov, Y. & Stern, E., Ship Graffiti from Akko (Acre), Mariners Mirror, 2008

Kastholm, O. T., Six ship graffiti from Himmelev Church, Maritime Archaeology Newsletter from Denmark 26, Summer 2011

Laurie C.C. Stanley-Blackwell and John D. Blackwell, “Graffiti and Sacred Spaces:Holy Trinity Anglican Church, Dorchester, N.B.”, Acadiensis, XXVIII, 1 (Autumn 1998), pp. 66-75.

Meeson, B., Ritual Marks and Graffiti: Curiosities or Meaningful Symbols?, Vernacular Architecture Vol. 36, 2005, pp.41-48

Montague Benton, G., “Medieval graffiti in Steeple Bumstead and other Essex churches”, Transactions of Essex Archaeology Society, 17, pt. 4, 1925, pp. 1-8

Pavitt, M., Medieval and other Graffiti, Gamlingay: friends of St Mary’s, 1998

Peake, J., ‘Graffiti and Devotion in Three Maritime Churches’ in Heslop, T.A., Mellings, E., Thofner, M., (eds), Art, Faith and Place in East Anglia: from Prehistory to the Present, Boydell, 2012

Pritchard, V., `Some English medieval ship graffiti', Mariners Mirror 73, 1987

Salmon, E. F., Masons and other incised marks in New Shoreham Church, Sussex Archaeological Collections XLVIII, 1905

Sherlock, D., Ashwell Church, Medieval Drawings and Writings, Ashwell Parish Church, 1978

Short, R. H. D., Graffiti on the Reredos of the Lady Chapel of Gloucester Cathedral, Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, Vol. LXVII, 1946

Smith, L., Compass, cut circle and Daisy wheel, The Mortice and Tenon 5, (Spring) 1993

Turner, G. S. R. Bahamian Ship Graffiti, Texas A & M University, Unpublished MA Thesis (2004)

Wood, F. C., Medieval Graffiti at New Shoreham, St Mary de Haura (http://shoreham.adur.org.uk/st_mary_graffiti.htm)